What is Smart Contract Verification? Complete Guide

Currently, there are a few ways to verify the smart contract. One of them is source code verification, and another is formative verification. Using formative verification, a smart contract can be verified to ensure that it is legitimate.

Source code verification

Whether you are building a new smart contract or redeploying a contract, you need to be able to verify its source code. Several tools are available that will help you do this. These tools are designed to detect vulnerabilities in smart contracts by adding assertions to the code. They can be used to check whether a contract has a security flaw or to test the validity of the code.

Source code verification is not an easy task, but it’s also not impossible. The right tooling will make it a lot easier. These tools can help you verify the correctness of a smart contract by using a higher level language and comparing it to the data on the blockchain.

One of the most important things to know when it comes to source code verification is the bytecode. Bytecode is low-level machine instructions that are used to execute the code written in the smart contract. Bytecode is a key part of smart contract source code, as it better reflects the machine-level specifics. The bytecode also includes the metadata hashes. This information includes a list of the source files, their hashes, and the compilation settings.

If you’re not sure about the bytecode, you can use a tool called Bytecode Verifier to check the integrity of your bytecode. This tool has been tested against the oldest deployed contracts. It also works for contracts that are deployed through a third party platform.

Source code verification is important because it provides a level of transparency for users. Without it, it’s difficult to trust a smart contract. This type of verification also helps reduce trust assumptions. It provides documentation on the contract’s logic.

In addition, it helps the user interact with the contract. For example, if the bytecode of a smart contract has the same names as a function, a user can interact with the contract. Bytecode is also important because it can be used to check whether the code was compiled with the right compiler.

Source code verification for smart contracts is a necessary step that will help make smart contracts more secure and accessible to users. In addition, it creates trust between users and smart contracts.

Formal verification

Using formal verification to check a smart contract’s quality is a step towards safer smart contract development. It gives greater confidence to the contract owner and customer. Formal smart contract verification is a powerful tool that eliminates human error, which can lead to serious bugs.

Formal verification is a specialized field that requires a high level of skill and time. To begin, you’ll need to create a formal specification. This is a written document that describes the exact behavior of a smart contract. This specification can be applied to any set of starting values. This specification can detect every possible vulnerability within the smart contract.

Formal smart contract verification uses mathematical techniques to verify that the algorithms implemented by a smart contract are correct with respect to the formal specification. The mathematical proofs generated during verification are unbiased.

A common form of formal representation for smart contracts is state-transition systems. These systems are typically verified against generic temporal logic properties. This type of verification is typically performed by model checkers. Other types of verification frameworks include BIP and cpntools.

The formal specification for smart contracts is often translated into a bytecode-level specification. This specification captures the smart contract’s behavior in the context of the virtual machine. It is necessary because smart contract code written by developers doesn’t always run on the blockchain. Formal smart contract verification is expensive. It requires highly skilled labor, a large investment in time, and specialized formal languages. It also requires a specialized developer.

Formal verification of smart contracts requires a formal specification and specialized tools. Some tools are built specifically for smart contract verification, such as VerX.

Program Traces are a common tool for detecting vulnerabilities in smart contracts. These traces are collections of instructions in bytecode that reflect the exact behaviors of contracts under certain inputs. They’re used for dynamic analyses and runtime verification.

Static analyses are also used for smart contract verification, although they are often limited in their ability to detect vulnerabilities. They may use the same mathematical “backend” as formal verification frameworks. Static analyses often miss verification of smart contract bundles.

Inter-transactional verification

Various techniques are available to verify smart contracts. The methods vary by the type of formal model and the properties desired. Some of them are used for static analysis, while others are implemented at runtime. Some of the techniques are also used for analyzing the performance of smart contracts.

Formal methods that verify smart contracts include model checkers, program verification techniques, and runtime monitoring. Theorem-proving approaches rarely consider the interaction between smart contracts. Program verification techniques translate smart contracts to a verification language, enabling a control-flow analysis. They also enable composite vulnerability analysis. Program Traces are events collected during runtime and are used for dynamic and security analyses. They preserve low-level details of the execution process, such as memory layout information. They are widely used for checking security properties.

These methods can be adapted to suit specific projects. Some of them are used for verifying both new and existing contracts. Manual verification may be required for a more complex deployment of Smart Contracts. These tools are designed to be able to perform analysis on all parts of a contract, including the underlying source code.

The AST is a natural abstraction of smart contract code, and can be used for statistical and deep learning-based analyses. It can also be used to decode memory layout information. This information is valuable for performing a deeper inspection of the smart contract code. These tools may also be used to find overflows and arithmetic operations that may cause errors.

A state-transition system is one of the most common formal representations of smart contracts. These systems capture time and probabilistic properties. These systems are also used for security analysis of Solidity contracts. They can be verified on the Rodin platform. Other tools, such as the Colored Petri net (CPN) technique, construct CPN models of contract users. They can then identify vulnerable states of the net. These techniques can also be used to detect attack in execution.

Theorem-proving approaches are not able to explore the full sequence of possible sequences due to the complex constraints of smart contracts. They are also limited by the path explosion problem. The results of our approach show an order of magnitude increase in the number of formally verified contracts.


Getting a contract flattened is an important step in smart contract verification. Often, a contract will contain multiple files, which means it will require pre-processing. In some cases, you may need to flatten all of the files to create a single file. If your contract uses libraries, it may also need to be flattened.

The first step in flattening is to remove any SPDX comments from the contract’s source code. After that, you need to merge the SPX identifiers and variable names into the new contract. If you want to verify a contract, you can do this manually or use a tool. Some developers use a browser-based Remix IDE or a command line tool. Then they copy the flattened code to a form in Etherscan, which will verify the smart contract.

Some of the tools available for smart contract verification include Moonscan, which has a built-in feature for multi-part smart contracts. To get started with Moonscan, you need to select Solidity (Multi-part files) as the compiler type in the application’s configuration. Once that is done, you will need to upload all of the Solidity files for your contract. You will also need to upload all of the contract files that use the dependencies of your contract. Depending on how your project is deployed, you may need to print a console while deploying your contract to get the constructor arguments. The arguments are stored in the trailing bytes of the deployment transaction.

Using a tool such as Moonscan, you can verify your contract’s source code quickly and easily. There are many other tools available, though, so it may be worth experimenting with different ones until you find one that works best for you. Also, keep in mind that a contract that is flattened should be verified multiple times to ensure that it is correct. This way, you can be sure that the code is compiled correctly and will work with your smart contract. It’s also important to keep in mind that a contract’s source code should be entered in ABI hex-encoded form. This will ensure that the code will match the compiled bytecode.

By Extensinet